Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is a simple, inexpensive, high-throughput, alternative routine for creating periodic nanostructure arrays. However, most of the sphere templates that were reported in previous literature have shown a well-ordered arrangement of nanospheres only in a small area of domain, which makes it difficult to create large-area nanoscale array patterns. Nick Wu’s group at West Virginia University recently improved the nanosphere lithography method and demonstrated a low-cost, high-throughput, high-resolution technique for fabrication of large-area (wafer-scale), high-quality nanostructure array patterns with controlled feature size, shape and pitch. They have combined the nanosphere lithography technique with electrodeposition processing to devise a facile nanopatterning approach. By utilizing this approach, they have fabricated a nanowell polypyrrole array pattern and a gold nanohemisphere array pattern. This work was recently published in Nanotechnology.

Their nanopatterning approach can be extensively used for nanodevice fabrication. They have demonstrated that the fabricated pattern can function as a nanoelectrode array (NEA). NEAs attract a lot of attention because they bring intriguing benefits over conventional macroelectrodes, including enhanced mass transport, lowered detection limit, improved signal-to-noise ratio, increased temporal resolution and the ability to make spatially resolved chemical measurements.