Polyurethane (PU) is one of most versatile polymeric materials and has a wide application as surface coatings. In this work, published in Nanotechnology , it was found that the formation of chemical bonding between functionalized graphene sheets and PU macromolecules allowed a significant stress transfer. With the incorporation of 4.4 wt% graphite oxide nanoplatelets, the Young's modulus and hardness of the PU was significantly increased by ~900% and ~327%, respectively. Nanoindentation tests revealed that the scratch resistance was exceptionally improved as shown in the figure. It points to the promising application of composite materials in surface coating. It was expected that the 2D structure of the graphene sheets could improve the barrier properties of coatings like nanoclay. Also, if it is proven in future work, the surface coatings will not only be reinforced, but also functionalized by the graphene sheets.