Moreover, nanodiamond is highly biocompatible with low cytotoxicity and animal toxicity. The surface of the nanodiamond can be facilely derivatized with a wide range of functional groups. The surface-functionalized nanodiamond provides a versatile platform for conjugation with biomolecules such as peptides, proteins and DNA. Hence, nanodiamond is applicable as a drug and gene delivery vehicle. Most recently, sub-diffraction images of FNDs have been successfully acquired with far-field fluorescence microscopy and electron spin resonance. All the exciting new developments have added a new dimension for applications in biology and nanomedicine.

A review summarizing recent advances in the development of FNDs for optical bioimaging with single particle sensitivity and nanometric resolution can be found in the latest issue of J. Phys D: Applied Physics.