The most common "peeling-off" method to produce graphene is only useful for making small-scale prototype devices but the new method makes it possible to apply this approach on a larger scale while preserving high sample quality, says Shukla.

The researchers used a technique known as anodic bonding, which sticks a conductor or semiconductor onto a glass substrate using large electrostatic forces that come from the ionic conductivity of the substrate. This means that no adhesive is required. The method is widely used in the microelectronics industry to bond silicon wafers to glass.

"This technique had never been tried on layered substances, like graphene, presumably because they do not stick but peel off, but we turned this phenomenon to our advantage" explained Shukla. "Only the first or first few atomic layers remain bonded to the substrate while the bulk can be peeled off."

Larger surface area samples
Because the samples are bonded to a rigid glass substrate, this produces larger surface area samples of high quality in an efficient and simple way. The method might be used for other layered materials as well.

So far, the researchers have produced millimetre-sized samples but say that they could improve on this. "Materials other than graphene will produce bigger samples still, making possible applications in microelectronics and fundamental experiments limited by sample size," Shukla told

The team would now like to extend the method to other substrates. It would also like to use appropriately micropatterned substrates to make suspended atomic layers.

Shukla says that he already uses the technique for making X-ray mirrors by bonding single crystal silicon onto glass substrates for use in X-ray spectrometers at synchrotrons. "When I heard of graphene, I immediately thought of trying to use the method for making this material."

The work was reported in Solid State Communications.